(1852-1892) Khedive of Egypt 1879-1892.
Tawfiq had a difficult start for his reign,
inheriting a bankrupt state and naturall being
associated with the catastrophy of the former
ruler, his father Ismail Pasha. He was early on
challenged by the officer Ahmad Orabi Pasha, and
sought even more British aid to control his
1852 April 30: Born in Cairo, Egypt, as son
1879: After that his father has been
dethroned as ruler of Egypt by the Ottoman sultan,
Tawfiq is made new khedive of Egypt.
1881: Is forced by a group of military
officers under the leadership of Ahmad Orabi Pasha
to reinstate a Chamber of Notables. These changes
were strongly opposed by Britain and France, but
Orabi continued to pressure Tawfiq.
1882: Is forced to appoint Orabi as
Minister for War.
— August: As Orabi becomes increasingly popular,
Tawfiq seeks European support to retain his
— September:The British occupies Cairo an defeats
Orabi, and reinstate Tawfiq, now a weak ruler
functioning as a British puppet.
1892 January 7: Dies in Helwan, south of
Cairo, Egypt. He is succeeded by his son Abbas 2.