l-Musilha, Egypt 1928- ) Egyptian president (1981-
) and military leader.
Mubarak was born into a higher middle class
family, and his education was military, from both
Egypt (National Military Academy and Air Force
Academy) and Soviet Union (Frunze General Staff
He joined the air force in 1950, and became
air force chief of staff in 1969, and
commander in chief in 1972. He had several
military positions under president Sadat, like
deputy minister of war, and was one of Sadat's
In 1975 he was appointed vice president.
Mubarak was elected new president October 13,
1981, one week after Sadat had been
assassinated. Mubarak declared on his inauguration
that he would follow up the political line of
Sadat, which had been one of reconciliation with
the West, and peace with Israel inside
internationally recognized borders.
Mubarak's program since 1981 has been one
of economic reforms, more political freedom, like
letting the Muslim Brotherhood into the
parliament, and he gave more freedom for the
press. Internationally, he has focused on
neutrality between the great powers and put his
efforts into improving relations with other Arab
states. In October 1987 Mubarak was
re-elected wiht 97,1%.
Mubarak supported the UN sanctions against Iraq,
after their occupation of Kuwait in 1990,
and Egypt participated in the Gulf War with
38,500 troops, and has been part of the
post-war efforts to stabilize the Gulf region.
Mubarak's government advised the Palestinians
during the talks in Norway in 1993, leading
to the Oslo Agreement of the same year. Mubarak
was re-elected the second time in 1993