History - Hosni Mubarak

(Kafru l-Musilha, Egypt 1928- )
Egyptian president (1981- ) and military leader.
Mubarak was born into a higher middle class family, and his education was military, from both Egypt (National Military Academy and Air Force Academy) and Soviet Union (Frunze General Staff Academy).

He joined the air force in 1950, and became air force chief of staff in 1969, and commander in chief in 1972. He had several military positions under president Sadat, like deputy minister of war, and was one of Sadat's closest advisors.
In 1975 he was appointed vice president. Mubarak was elected new president October 13, 1981, one week after Sadat had been assassinated. Mubarak declared on his inauguration that he would follow up the political line of Sadat, which had been one of reconciliation with the West, and peace with Israel inside internationally recognized borders.

Mubarak's program since 1981 has been one of economic reforms, more political freedom, like letting the Muslim Brotherhood into the parliament, and he gave more freedom for the press. Internationally, he has focused on neutrality between the great powers and put his efforts into improving relations with other Arab states. In October 1987 Mubarak was re-elected wiht 97,1%.



Mubarak supported the UN sanctions against Iraq, after their occupation of Kuwait in 1990, and Egypt participated in the Gulf War with 38,500 troops, and has been part of the post-war efforts to stabilize the Gulf region.
Mubarak's government advised the Palestinians during the talks in Norway in 1993, leading to the Oslo Agreement of the same year. Mubarak was re-elected the second time in 1993


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